Question or problem about Python programming:
I try to run the following codes on Spyder (Python 2.7.11):
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- import numpy as np import pandas as pd %matplotlib inline import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import matplotlib.cm as cm import tensorflow as tf # settings LEARNING_RATE = 1e-4 # set to 20000 on local environment to get 0.99 accuracy TRAINING_ITERATIONS = 2000 DROPOUT = 0.5 BATCH_SIZE = 50 # set to 0 to train on all available data VALIDATION_SIZE = 2000 # image number to output IMAGE_TO_DISPLAY = 10
But I got this error:
line 10 %matplotlib inline ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax.
I appreciate if anybody gives me an explanation.
P.S. the code is from Kaggle competition project: Digit Recognizer
How to solve the problem:
Line magics are only supported by the IPython command line. They cannot simply be used inside a script, because
%something is not correct Python syntax.
If you want to do this from a script you have to get access to the IPython API and then call the
%matplotlib inline, you will have to do something like this in your script:
from IPython import get_ipython get_ipython().run_line_magic('matplotlib', 'inline')
A similar approach is described in this answer, but it uses the deprecated
Note that the script still needs to run in IPython. Under vanilla Python the
get_ipython function returns
get_ipython().run_line_magic will raise an
Because line magics are only supported by the IPython command line not by Python cl, use:
'exec(%matplotlib inline)' instead of
The syntax ‘%’ in
%matplotlib inline is recognized by iPython (where it is set up to handle the magic methods), but not Python itself, which gives a SyntaxError.
Here is given one solution.
If you include the following code at the top of your script,
matplotlib will run inline when in an
IPython environment (like jupyter, hydrogen atom plugin…), and it will still work if you launch the script directly via command line (
matplotlib won’t run inline, and the charts will open in a pop-ups as usual).
from IPython import get_ipython ipy = get_ipython() if ipy is not None: ipy.run_line_magic('matplotlib', 'inline')
There are several reasons as to why this wouldn’t work.
It is possible that matplotlib is not properly installed.
have you tried running:
conda install matplotlib
If that doesn’t work, look at your %PATH% environment variable, does it contain your libraries and python paths?
This is the case you are using Julia:
The analogue of IPython’s %matplotlib in Julia is to use the PyPlot package, which gives a Julia interface to Matplotlib including inline plots in IJulia notebooks. (The equivalent of numpy is already loaded by default in Julia.)
Given PyPlot, the analogue of %matplotlib inline is using PyPlot, since PyPlot defaults to inline plots in IJulia.
Instead of %matplotlib inline,it is not a python script so we can write like this it will work
from IPython import get_ipython