Most lightweight way to create a random string and a random hexadecimal number

Question or problem about Python programming:

What is the most lightweight way to create a random string of 30 characters like the following?

And an hexadecimal number of 30 digits like the followin?

How to solve the problem:

Solution 1:

I got a faster one for the hex output. Using the same t1 and t2 as above:

>>> t1 = timeit.Timer("''.join(random.choice('0123456789abcdef') for n in xrange(30))", "import random")
>>> t2 = timeit.Timer("binascii.b2a_hex(os.urandom(15))", "import os, binascii")
>>> t3 = timeit.Timer("'%030x' % random.randrange(16**30)", "import random")
>>> for t in t1, t2, t3:
...     t.timeit()
...
28.165037870407104
9.0292739868164062
5.2836320400238037

t3 only makes one call to the random module, doesn’t have to build or read a list, and then does the rest with string formatting.

Solution 2:

30 digit hex string:

>>> import os,binascii
>>> print binascii.b2a_hex(os.urandom(15))

The advantage is that this gets randomness directly from the OS, which might be more secure and/or faster than the random(), and you don’t have to seed it.

Solution 3:

In Py3.6+, another option is to use the new standard secrets module:

>>> import secrets
>>> secrets.token_hex(15)
>>> secrets.token_urlsafe(22)   # may include '_-' unclear if that is acceptable
'teRq7IqhaRU0S3euX1ji9f58WzUkrg'

Solution 4:

import string
import random
lst = [random.choice(string.ascii_letters + string.digits) for n in xrange(30)]
str = "".join(lst)
print str
ocwbKCiuAJLRJgM1bWNV1TPSH0F2Lb

Solution 5:

Dramatically faster solution than those here:

timeit("'%0x' % getrandbits(30 * 4)", "from random import getrandbits")
0.8056681156158447

Solution 6:

Note: random.choice(string.hexdigits) is incorrect, because string.hexdigits returns 0123456789abcdefABCDEF (both lowercase and uppercase), so you will get a biased result, with the hex digit ‘c’ twice as likely to appear as the digit ‘7’. Instead, just use random.choice('0123456789abcdef').

Solution 7:

Another Method :

from Crypto import Random
import binascii

my_hex_value = binascii.hexlify(Random.get_random_bytes(30))

The point is : byte value is always equal to the value in hex.

Solution 8:

one-line function:

import random
import string

def generate_random_key(length):
return ''.join(random.choice(string.ascii_lowercase + string.digits) for _ in range(length))

print generate_random_key(30)

Solution 9:

In [1]: import random

In [2]: hex(random.getrandbits(16))
Out[2]: '0x3b19'

Solution 10:

Incidentally, this is the result of using timeit on the two approaches that have been suggested:

Using random.choice():

>>> t1 = timeit.Timer("''.join(random.choice(string.hexdigits) for n in xrange(30))", "import random, string")
>>> t1.timeit()
69.558588027954102

Using binascii.b2a_hex():

>>> t2 = timeit.Timer("binascii.b2a_hex(os.urandom(15))", "import os, binascii")
>>> t2.timeit()
16.288421154022217